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Preventing Urinary Blockage in Cats

Bubba the Cat | Atlantic Veterinary Hospital, SeattleBy Bubba the Cat
Public Relations Officer

We’ve had a run of “blocked” cats recently, so I wanted to tell you more about it so you can save my kitty colleagues—and your wallet—a great deal of pain.

Urinary blockages occur almost exclusively male cats when a plug of material gets stuck in their urethra, the tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside.

In a male cat like me, this tube has a very tiny diameter and it’s easy for urinary crystals, stones, or mucus plugs to create a traffic jam. When a cat is “blocked,” it cannot void urine and the bladder quickly overfills, causing tremendous pain and toxins to build up in the blood. This is a life-threatening emergency if not managed quickly, and can rapidly cause acute kidney failure and a painful death.

Preventing Urinary Blockage in Cats | AtlanticVetSeattle.comI am the poster child for urinary blockage – I’m a male, neutered cat, I live indoors, I’m middle-aged, I’m a bit chunky about the middle, and I prefer dry food.

Cats with highly concentrated urine, a condition extremely common when we eat exclusively or primarily dry food, is always a factor in causing a urinary blockage.

To help prevent this in yours truly, I’m served wet food twice a day to help keep me hydrated and the dry food I eat is designed to help prevent crystals from forming.

Big hint here:

Grocery store brands of dry food are much more likely to be implicated in urinary blockage, so please don’t buy that stuff. In the long run, you’re not saving money and could be putting your cat’s life at risk.

Signs of potential urinary blockage

  • Repeated trips to the litter box and straining (sometimes people think their cat is constipated when it’s actually a urinary blockage)
  • Producing only drops of urine or no urine, instead of a normal amount
  • Crying, agitation, and sometimes vomiting associated with trying to urinate
  • Lethargy and depression as the pain and toxins becomes too much to bear

What to do if you suspect your cat has urinary blockage

If you think your cat may be experiencing a urinary blockage, take him to the vet immediately. Do not wait; this is a life-threatening situation.

The doctor will need to relieve the obstruction quickly. She will likely want to perform some tests to see if there are any significant complications, such as kidney failure and elevated potassium, which require additional treatment. Sometimes, X-rays or an ultrasound are helpful too.

To relieve the obstruction, the vet usually needs to sedate or anesthetize the cat, then carefully pass a urinary catheter into the penis, through the urethra, and into the bladder. The catheter allows the bladder to be emptied and for the vet to flush the bladder with saline to try to rinse some of the crystals out. These procedures must be done very carefully to avoid further damage to the urethra.

A softer, longer urinary catheter, called a “Slippery Sam,” is then placed to keep the pathway open and help prevent an immediate re-blockage. This second catheter will usually need to remain in place for a few days to allow the kitty’s bladder to return to its normal, un-stretched size, and to assist the kitty in passing more crystals and excess toxins in his urine.

IV fluids are usually needed to help the kitty flush toxins from his system and make more dilute urine. Antibiotics and medications to help relax the urethra and control pain and inflammation are usually prescribed.

Long-term care

Long-term care is aimed at preventing another urinary obstruction from happening, as they often will if not managed properly. There are special diets, both canned and dry, to help create more dilute urine and prevent the formation of urinary crystals and bladder stones.

If repeat blockages do occur, despite appropriate management, some kitties require surgery to produce a new, wider opening for urination (but this puts the kitty at risk for bacterial urinary infections, so hopefully can be avoided).

Preventive care

To help prevent this situation from occurring the first place, please consider feeding your cat a diet that promotes hydration, such as wet food and/or a high-quality dry food with water added.

Watch your kitty’s waistline and help him maintain his athletic build (good for him on so many levels).

And, if you ever notice a change in your cat’s urinary habits, especially a male cat, please take him to the vet immediately.

Tell them Bubba sent you.

29 Responses to “Preventing Urinary Blockage in Cats”

  1. Reply Kami Brown

    I wish I had known about feline urinary blockage sooner. Last week I lost my beautiful boy, inspite of repeated catheterizations and PU surgery.
    I am broken hearted and blaming myself.
    He appeared to be healthy until he started straining to urinate. We are now trying to cope with his loss as well as recover financially.
    My boy’s name was Merl, but we also, lovingly referred to him as Bubba.
    Thank you for the information.
    Kami Brown

    • Reply billy jackson

      Kami …dont beat yourself up….all we can do is learn …ive got an almost 13 yr old girl…the blockage has not happened in 6-7 yrs …..i only use dry that is $77 for 17 lbs . vet must prescribe ….royal canin SO dry ….today is sat …she just got another block …1030 mon ..she will see vet . Take care .

      • Reply Savannah

        Thank you! My cat just had emergency surgery due to a urinary blockage and I’m trying to find out how I can prevent this from happening again especially my other male cat.

        • Reply Bryan

          Savannah, I posted a long description below of my Siamese cat, Marshall, and his struggle with urinary stones. In summary, he has had surgery three times, the last time in April 2023. Since that time we have fed Royal Canin wet only, but prepared in a very specific way. We take three cans each morning, put them in a blender along with three ounces of water, and hit “Puree.” Our blender automatically stops when it thinks the puree is done, but we do it a second time. We pour the product into a plastic container with a lid and serve it to Marshall six times a day. Eating stimulates his urge to pee, which is what you want, since it can wash out any small fragments from his bladder. Previously when he was on both Royal Canin wet and dry, Marshall developed stones and required surgery. We switched to the wet only after his April 2023 surgery, and monthly visits have shown no stones since then. As explained to me by my vet, the dry food works well on stones of the struvite type, but not so well on those composed of calcium oxalate. I suggest you find out what type of stones he has and treat your cat accordingly. We are nine months free of stones here with the method we follow.

    • Reply Angeline

      June 30th 2022 my world crashed Mr.Whiskers my beloved cat showed NO signs of a UTI then ended up with a blockage! I only knew something was wrong when he tried to pee and that was it for me I called right away! Unfortunately no one could see him and I had to wait for after hours to open he wasn’t seen till 6 hours later if only someone could have seen him sooner. By the time we got there all he had to do was look up at me and I knew. Vet had said it would be a long hard road and they suffer.. I didn’t want my little guy to hurt let alone suffer.. So my son and I made the gut and heartbreaking decision to let him go in peace. After reading so many peoples stories I know I did the right thing for him. Just can’t stop crying I wish this never happened and I don’t understand how it did!!! They had water all the time, had wet food and dry we were told by the VET that they were 100% healthy and were on the correct food and the best food .. So it’s not always the food it can be many other reasons like hereditary, stress, etc.. I pray one day they can find a better way to help and have a higher success rate of it working.. I’m sorry for everyone who has lost their pet to this crap, we still have his brother and I’m making sure he pees at least twice per day I’m on his litter pan like white on rice!! Also giving him distilled water and leaving some everywhere switched his diet too giving wet food for urinary health… I pray for a cure I pray for healing for everyone as well. Much love

  2. Reply beverley roberts

    I have just taken my dear kitty Marley in to the vet and had him euthanised. That is the hardest thing I have ever had to do. I spent many years and thousands of dollars hoping that this attack of cystitis would be the last and that he would grow out of it. Looking at the $3,000.00 I had just spent plus all the many thousands during the previous four years, I still had hope that the operation for $3,000.00 would be the answer, but the local vet assured me it is not the best for him either as there can be many complications and further treatments for common infections. I finally was able to see that we had come to the end of the road. It was hard to see him laying on the vet table and trusting me to take care of this. He was so intelligent. The vet was so kind and explained what she would be doing so there were no surprises. I held him close and whispered loving messages to him as the vet inserted the needle in his hind leg. Then he quickly dropped his head and I knew he was gone. It seemed surreal to think that it was happening but although me and the other two kitties at home are slowly adjusting, I know I did the best for him and pray that there is a wonderful place him to explore.

    • Reply Beverly Fries

      I am so sorry to hear about your loss. My 4-year-old cat Dash and I are going through this now. He stayed at the vet’s office for about a week with catheters and IVs. We went back twice a week for a month for steroid shots, (now once a month). We went to the emergency vet last week because he was exhibiting symptoms; crying, straining, lethargy. My vet said he had a UTI, not a blockage this time. Anyway, Dash is on ampicillin and I hope this stops this vicious cycle. However, he is still straining and crying. I don’t see a bright outlook for him based on everything I have read. I hate to see him in pain like this. The surgery is out of my pocketbook range, and as I understand, it may or may not cure this. Again, Beverley, I am so sorry for your loss.

    • Reply Kimberly

      Hi! My poor little boy Simon has this problem. We had to take him to the ER last year. Ever since then we have been using the hills perscription diet.

      Obviously his health is the most important thing so if not that’s ok, but I wondered if there are any natural foods or treats we could give him that would be ok?

      • Reply Carol

        Hi.. How is he doing now? Our cat T.J. is having surgery soon. He was suddenly blocked..and was withdrawn..They gave him the catheter treatment and said he peed on his own and released him only to see him blocked again! He is on Royal and Hills food now
        He seemed fine and was playing and purring and we brought him back and they said he was blocked. They wanted to do the catheter again..but what was the point? He needed surgery..
        We found another low cost pet vet center in Queens and thus far they are very professional and said he was misdiagnosed!
        He has stones.. and the other place said they could not find crystals or stones! They never did an X-ray..This doctor did and found them..So we pray he is successful at removing the stones. He said he may not need the PU surgery..
        We pray for a miracle and complete recovery!
        Hope your cat is well!

  3. Reply Mrs. Fishel

    My prayers are w/you. I have two cats. I pray that we do not experience anything such as what you have gone through. So sorry for the loss of your beloved pet. I am writing this w/big tears streaming down my face!

  4. Reply Wendy

    I just don’t understand why if dry food is so bad for blockage then why do vets and pet stores always feed our babies it and tell us to feed it to them when we adopt them and never tell us to add water to it or anything ! I think if you work at a pet store you should know what’s good and what’s bad and then tell us customers who don’t know that what we are feeding our babies is going to kill them ! I didn’t feed my cat food from grocery stores it was expensive healthy food and he still got blocked and had to be put down 2 weeks ago at the age of 21 months ., not fun at all …Really need a cure that’s guaranteed to work for years. He got sick so fast started on Tuesday July 21st and by Thursday July 23rd we had to euthanize him ! So many feelings right now and wondering why it happens to some cats and not others ? It’s devastating .

    • Reply Kerri Bean

      I’m so sorry for your all’s losses. I just had to put my sweet Bailey down this morning. He has been in the hospital since Wednesday and Friday he was fine but they wanted to do more test on him Apparently he was worst off then we had thought. Prepared to go get him today we got a call saying he didn’t have much time left. We went and said our goodbyes and kissed him. We are so heart broken. He will be missed so much. I hope one day we will meet again ❤️

      • Reply Bernadine just

        Our beautiful 5 year old cat has now had a w blocked bladder 3 times in 5 weeks I have 3 adults with complex needs I am so worried that I am going to loose him as I have had him since he was born he is a lovely friendly cat who loves everyone the vet has being great with him it’s the pdsa that he goes to I hope they find something to stop him getting a blocked bladder as I dont want to loose him my heart is breaking at the thought of not having him I pray for all the cats that are getting this and my heart is with yous all who are going though this

  5. Reply Sherri A Thomas

    These stories are terrifying me. My baby Jasper is currently in ER vet’s hands, undergoing unblocking and I am out of my mind worrying. During Covid obviously patients are seen alone without their parents, and that is making the unknown worse I think. Jasper is 1 1/2, a rescue, otherwise healthy, seemingly not stressed, has two litter boxes, no other cat companions, and a elder dog he loves. In the absence of those non issues I’m left with the above mentioned, “Why did they tell me dry food was okay?!” Jasper loves water and is a great drinker, way better than my previous elder cat who I lost years ago. I wish they would call, update me, or at least let me know what happens after monitoring. Does he come home with a different catheter for a few days of home monitoring and then go back to have it taken out? If they are not doing that, then why aren’t they if that’s best practice. Ugh. To everyone above who’ve gone through this and lost their babies, I am so sorry and my heart is with you!!!

    • Reply Brie

      My kitty is in ER right now. I also wish I knew this about dry food and the risk etc. We caught it early, so I’m
      Praying my best friend is okay. He’s literally my best friend and has been part of my life for 10 wonderful years. His name is Bijou. I know this is 2 years later, but I really hope your special kitty recovered well.

  6. Reply Gina R

    I’m so sorry for all of the stories I just read here, my heart breaks with you. My kitty a few years ago stayed in the hospital for a week with a urinary blockage and came home with no other treatments required and is doing well. This past weekend my other kitty had a urinary blockage and an extremely large and stretched out bladder with lots of pain. He was not urinating on his own after they removed the catheter and would require squeezing his bladder to help him pee multiple times a day and an unknown and painful future. He was such a loving cat, almost like a dog loving his belly rubbed. He was put down yesterday and I will struggle with my decision, Our pets know we loved them and we try to make the best decisions for them even though we are left with the guilt and heartache of the unknown. Author, please be more specific about high quality brands to feed our kitties because every brand claims to be the best and high priced doesn’t necessarily mean high quality.

  7. Reply Beverly Fries

    I am so sorry to hear about your loss. My 4-year-old cat Dash and I are going through this now. He stayed at the vet’s office for about a week with catheters and IVs. We went back twice a week for a month for steroid shots, (now once a month). We went to the emergency vet last week because he was exhibiting symptoms; crying, straining, lethargy. My vet said he had a UTI, not a blockage this time. Anyway, Dash is on ampicillin and I hope this stops this vicious cycle. However, he is still straining and crying. I don’t see a bright outlook for him based on everything I have read. I hate to see him in pain like this. The surgery is out of my pocketbook range, and as I understand, it may or may not cure this. Again, Beverley, I am so sorry for your loss.

  8. Reply Nece

    I’m so sorry for everyone’s losses on here. I’m definitely feeling better in this moment as I read everyone’s comments & responses. Early this morning my girls and I had to say goodbye to our handsome loving Patch..Right now I’m definitely upset that all the clinics I contacted never mentioned our baby could have had a blockage or UTI. We assumed he was constipated simply because of the signs. It never dawned on me that those were also signs that he was having issue urinating. I didn’t want to run to the vet if we could help treat him at home especially before he wasn’t already completely blocked. So I just don’t understand why no vet or vet nurse couldn’t mention the other possibilities. Yesterday he started screaming out in pain and a scream I had never heard him make before. I immediately knew something was definitely wrong. So I called around to some local 24 hour vet hospitals and found one that could take us . After his evaluation we knew his fate of coming back home with us was extremely grime. Of course the hospitals charges was definitely unreachable for our family during a National Pandemic. We’re all just getting back to work just this summer. So when the vet gave us the information on his procedure needed along with his aftercare I knew we had to make the best decision for Patch. I could see he was suffering and that was breaking my heart. So as the mother and primary care giver I made the decision to have him put down. The hospital was great working with us after seeing just how devastating this situation our family. They even took care of putting him down free of charge. I was able to be with him assure him that he wouldn’t be in pain any longer. As devastating as it was to say goodbye I definitely didn’t know what type of life he would have after surgery since I was informed that this could have been a recurring situation for him. I know I could’ve kept watching him suffer. I’m just broken hearted at this time and I’m definitely missing him around our home. However we did pay the crematorium fees so that we could bring him home and always have him with us.

  9. Reply Charissa Stiefvater

    Hello everyone ~ our very sweet and loving Tuxedo cat, Floyd, has been in the ICU now for 3 days ~ they took the catheter out today and he re-blocked several hours later ~ We are a wreck over here and it’s been terrible knowing what the possible outcome might be. Prayers to your cats and to you all!!

  10. Reply Molly

    We just got our boy Starlord back from the vet today from our second round of a bad blockage. I’m so thankful that he’s alive right now but terrified that it may happen again, because if it does we won’t have the money for treatment and we might have to put him down. He’s only 3 years old and the vet gave us special dry food for him. It hurts so much seeing him in so much pain so young. He’s the light of me and my family’s life and has two sister cats that have missed him so much. I feel for everyone’s losses

    • Reply Masha

      Macy my 4 years old boy was unblocked twice within a week. It was so stressful to see his frustration unable to pee. The third time within two weeks he was straining again. This time the vet did not insert the catheter but just iv and lots of medicine I believe. We have changed his dry food to royal canin s/o but he doesn’t seems to be eating the wet food much. I’m worried as he’s is losing weight. I’m so so sorry for your loss. It is so heartbreaking…

    • Reply Karen young

      Male cat age 4 was blocked, after week in vets, came home. Two days later he couldn’t pee and blocked again. Another three days at vets and home. This was last December and haven’t had another episode. Before blockages he was on expensive dry food grain free and good for urinary tract. So now I give them both grain free chicken or salmon making sure first ingredient is meat not a by product. Never seen them both so happy and healthy this year so buying expensive doesn’t mean better. I have water fountains in two places in house and also outside on deck where they spend a lot of time. Hydration seems to be the key so now also take some of their dry food and mix friskiest lil gravies on top and they devour it. They refuse to eat canned food unless it’s the gravy kind then only lick gravy off. Don’t like pate’s either. Every cat is different and since I know they are hydrated with water and gravies I can rest easy. Buying water fountains and adding ice cubes during hot days I can be assured they stay healthy. I pray my male tuxedo doesn’t get blocked again, but I know all the signs now.

  11. Reply Crystal

    I had read about a homeopathic, naturopathic veterinarian in California that said the neutering of male kittens, especially black male kittens, prevented the urinary tubules from fully developing, and ultimately resulted in smaller tubules developing and urinary crystals formed blockages more easily. I can’t find any more information about this on the internet, as it looks like this veterinarian has died. Does anyone have any more information on this?

    • Reply Kelly

      wow. This is interesting. I have a black neutered 4 yr. old indoor cat. He was fully blocked 2 weeks ago with no signs of trouble until he was blocked. 1 night at the vet with catheter. 2 weeks later he is clingy but normal. I am trying to get him on 75% wet diet with a little dry to fill gaps. He is on Purina Pro vet prescription urinary st ox wet and dry. I pray the dry isn’t going to be an issue with causing him a blockage.

  12. Reply Sam

    My male 2 year old Russian Blue was showing signs of what I thought was a UTI last night. He seemed worse this morning so I rushed him to our vet. They expressed some urine but said he does have a partial blockage and I needed to take him to an emergency clinic. Got there and seen and he needed the flushing treatment now! They quoted me $3900-$5500!! I was devastated knowing my husband would not let me put that into a cat. I took a few minutes, gathered info and called him. We ended up doing the procedure today. Dr called me after and said everything looked good but there is a chance of reblocking after they pull the tube. She made it seem like this would fix it all when she quoted the price! Now I am reading all of these comments and I am so worried! I do NOT have anymore money I can put in. Did I just waste thousands of dollars on an unfixable cat?? I’m so worried about him now!

  13. Reply Pam

    My heart goes out to all of you- I recently lost my Maximus. He was a 7 year old male- my little lion, and brother to Rome. He started with anorexia, vomiting, lethargy, and minimal urination, I rushed him to the ER, of course first doctor wasn’t sure of much, then the next day I took him to his regular we did xrays and bloodwork to find out his creatine levels were horrible, he hasn’t had bad bloodwork before, he was a healthy lively cat a few days ago. We rushed him with hospitalization, and tests after tests, xrays, ultrasounds, you name it, the next day his vet transferred him to another center bec he wasn’t improving and they were more advanced treatment, they again continued with IVs, urinary cath, etc, and no one could explain what it was. He got fluid overload, and wasn’t producing any urine by now, was put on oxygen and we had to let him go. Long story short from 3-4 different doctors and 4k later- no one is completely sure what happened. but our world and my baby is gone. I’m devasted. He was always given dry and wet food, and treated very well. And I lost him

  14. Reply Daniel Rossi

    Hello all, it saddens me beyond measure to read all of your stories today. Yesterday my 4 year old sweet Orange Tabby Dabo was given this diagnosis. Needless to say my heart absolutely sank and I knew that it was only a matter of time if we did the surgery that he could very likely get reblocked. The pain he was in and the wails he made before we could go in broke me to my core and all I could do that day while waiting for the emergency vet to open was comfort him and love him. I had no idea when I got there that I would be given his diagnosis, and that he could not only get reblocked quickly, but that the surgery would be so expensive. Instead of putting him through all this for him to just be more likely to be in even more pain and suffer more, my wife and I made the hardest decision we’ve had to make, we opted to ease him through his transition to a better place. He was given a painkiller and we spent an hour or two loving him, showing him affection and telling him how important he was and how much we love him and how much we will miss him. I cried throughout that day from the first time he yowled in pain up to the time that I’m writing this. I know in my heart that I made the right choice, and while I could understand why others would try everything they can, I didn’t want him to have to suffer any more nor continue to suffer when the ugly problem raises its head again. He was able to leave this world pain free and in the arms of those who loved him most. As the tears streamed down my face as he passed on, I knew I had made the right choice. My baby was no longer hurting, or wondering why he was in this strange place. He was at peace and the 4 and 1/2 years he gave me, though no where near enough, were some of the best times of my life and I’m just happy I was able to have him along with me to experience that journey and know what it’s like to be loved back unconditionally. He was given nothing but affection and love from the time we adopted him at just 8 weeks old til the time that he finally passed on. I will miss him eternally and even though a piece of me feels like it is now missing, I know that I will always still have that piece with me everywhere I go.

  15. Reply Bryan

    Marshall is my almost 13 year old Siamese. Three years ago, he had a blockage and yelled in awful pain. He had surgery and the bladder stones were removed. Five months ago an ultrasound detected stones again…….the awful “jack stones,” named after the game of jacks because that’s what they look like. Had surgery again and he recovered. Three months later he had more stones. Another surgery. He was not a great eater of wet food (he loved the dry food) but I have put him totally on wet food and this is how I did it. He would not eat the Royal Canine wet food, but he would lick up the gravy. I put three cans in a blender every morning, add just a tiny bit of water, and blend it into a wet paste. I give him a small portion five times a day, saving the food in small dishes covered with plastic wrap. He would NOT eat this wet food out of the can (he didn’t like the chunks, just the gravy) but he is an eager eater of the blended paste food. He is totally off the dry food now and just eats the paste. I am hopeful this will reduce his problem to the point that I can extend his life to the max. He is otherwise totally healthy, ,as the vet said his blood work looks like a 7-8 year old cat. I am fortunate that I can afford as many surgeries as it takes. I am so sorry for all of you that have had unhappy endings. I am scared to death that that may be in store for Marshall, despite my best efforts, but I posted this for you folks that may benefit from getting your cat to eat wet food blended into a paste.

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